Expert reviews

Rickets results from impaired mineralisation of the growth plate. Hypophosphataemia is common to all forms of rickets as hypophosphataemia impairs both hydroxyapatite formation and failure of apoptosis of the hypertrophied chondrocytes.
Authored by Associate Professor Justin H Davies
The evaluation of children presenting with short stature includes detailed clinical, phenotypic, auxological and biochemical assessments with genetic analyses in selected cases.
Authored by Professor Helen Storr
Amongst healthy adolescents, there is a near-normal distribution of the timing of puberty, with the mean age of onset in boys being 11.5 years and in girls 11 years, but wide inter-individual variation.
Authored by Sasha R Howard and Leo Dunkel
The designation “Idiopathic short stature” was first used in the 1980s as a description for short children who had normal growth hormone secretion and otherwise unexplained short stature.
Authored by Martin Savage
While adrenal disease in children is quite rare, healthcare professionals today working in paediatric endocrinology departments are experts in managing the care of children with adrenal disease.
Authored by Kate Davies
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a disorder of decreased cortisol production coupled with an increase in androgens from a compensatory adrenocorticotropic hormone drive.
Authored by Professor Ieuan Hughes and Dr Rieko Tadokoro-Cuccaro
Precocious puberty is a prevalent endocrine disorder that affects children globally. Classically, precocious puberty is defined as the development of secondary sexual characteristics before age 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys and it has a clear female predominance.
Authored by Ana Claudia Latronico MD, PhD
Noonan syndrome is a relatively common autosomal dominant disorder characterised by facial dysmorphism, short stature, chest deformities and congenital heart defects.
Authored by Dr Alexander A L Jorge
The role of growth hormone has been established for many decades, but it is only with the advent of advanced molecular genetic techniques that researchers have started to piece together the precise pathways leading to growth.
Authored by Andrew Dauber, MD, MMSc
Delayed puberty is common in the developed world, affecting over 2% of adolescents, and is associated with adverse health outcomes including short stature, reduced bone mineral density and compromised psychosocial health.
Authored by Dr Sasha Howard
Martin Savage
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